Chavdaneh specialized laboratory
Classical methods (physical and chemical) and mechanical methods are used in Chavdaneh food laboratory to analyze food. In classical methods, simple laboratory equipment and various reactions are often used, but in instrumental methods, modern laboratory equipment is used.
Water forms a major part of food ingredients and animal and poultry feed. A part of food water is easily removed by pressure or heat, but another part of the water contained in the food material as an attachment or composition is removed in a form that is called continuous water. The experts of Chavdaneh foodstuff laboratory recommend measuring the moisture content of the foodstuff for the following two reasons:
1- Determining the purity of food in cases where water has been added to the food or its moisture content is more than allowed.
2- Determining the ability to store food, because the humidity of the environment is favorable for the growth of microorganisms.
Determining food ash
When food or animal feed is oxidized by heat or chemicals and burned so that its organic matter is destroyed and only its mineral matter remains, it is called food ash. Of course, this ash does not completely represent the nutrient solution, as some mineral solutions may be released during the heating process. The produced ash often contains substances such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, calcium, iron, sulfur, phosphorus and chlorine.
Fats in food exist in two forms, free and bound to other compounds. There are various methods for fat extraction, in which all fat-soluble substances such as phospholipids, sterols, free fatty acids and carotenoids are measured.
Measurement of free fatty acids
Hydrolytic spoilage of food fats is done under the effect of lipase enzyme and in the presence of water and includes saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Lipase enzyme can be of microbial origin or already present in the desired substance itself. In this corruption, fatty acids are separated from the glyceride composition, and especially 11 C fatty acids and shorter than that can cause an unpleasant taste and smell in the product.
Measurement of peroxide
Oxidation is one of the methods of food spoilage, and the substance obtained in this method is peroxide, which is measured by the peroxide number and occurs mostly in unsaturated fatty acids. Due to the importance of fatty acid oxidation in causing bad taste in foods, it is important to measure this factor. Peroxide or hydroperoxide is the primary product of fat oxidation, and the more unsaturated the fat, the more ready it is to be oxidized. The amount of hydroperoxide produced in the food is acceptable to a certain extent, and more than that indicates the spoilage of the food.
Identification of fatty acids
Fatty acids have a great variety and this situation has caused many fats with completely different properties to appear. By determining the type of fatty acids of a food composition, it is possible to find out the source of its fatty acids and also possible frauds. GLC (Gas Liquid Chromatograph) method is one of the accurate and quick methods for identifying fatty acids.
Measurement of sodium and potassium, calcium and phosphorus
The amount of minerals in food and animal feed can be measured by various chemical and mechanical methods. Flame Photometry is a method, a limited number of elements can be measured with this method, the maximum includes 4 elements sodium, potassium, calcium and lithium. There is another more important method called Atomic Absorption Spectrophtometry, which is relatively accurate and simple and for measuring Small amounts of different metals are sensitive enough
Polymeric proteins are amino acids that, due to their special structure and chemical composition, play an important role in creating appropriate and necessary physical and textural properties in food. These compounds are also important in terms of creating flavor and aroma in food. There are various methods for measuring the protein of food, which can be used according to the type of sample, the speed of measurement and the number of samples. The macrocaldal method is simpler and more accurate in comparison with other methods and is accepted as a standard method.